The patient which often diagnosed during infancy or adult, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common form of heart muscles usually genetically transmitted and compromises about 35-40% of cardiomyopathy in children. Hypertrophic refers to an abnormal growth of muscles fibers in the heart. In HOCM, the thick heart muscle is stiff making it difficult for the heart to relax and for blood to fill the heart chambers. While the heart squeezes normally, the limited filling prevents the heart from pumping enough blood, especially during exercise. HOCM can involes both lower chambers of the heart,usually effect on pumping chamber(left Ventricle) with thickening of the spetum, posterior wall or both. With hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, the muscle thickening restricts the flow of blood out of the heart. Often leakage of the mitral valve causes the blood into the lower chamber leak back into the upper chamber(left atrium).
Signs and Symtoms of HOCM :-
The first sign of HCM can include dyspnea, angina, presyncope, syncope, exercise intolerance or palpitations/arrhythmias.
:-young chidren/infants may be more difficult to detect but includes difficulty in breathing, poor growth, excessive sweating or crying and agitation during feeding thought to be due to chest pain.
:-some young children have no or mild symtoms, other may have more severe symtoms including heart failure.
:-children in severe HCM may have symptoms of heart failure such as difficulty in breathing, swelling around the eyes and leg(edema), tiredness or weakness, coughing, abdominal pain and vomiting.
:-Mild symptoms of heart failure can be also resemble asthama.
:-patient may developed abnormal heart rhythms that may put them increase risk of sudden cardiac death
Current Treatment for HOCM
1) Medical Therapies
2) Pacing Therapies
a) Implantables Cardioverter Defibrillator(ICD)
b) Surgery of HOCM which we called as Septal Myomectomy or Heart Transplantation/ LVAD